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Saturday, November 28, 2020 | History

2 edition of Factors influencing the biological effects of alkylating agents. found in the catalog.

Factors influencing the biological effects of alkylating agents.

Komaratchi Rajagopala Narayanan

Factors influencing the biological effects of alkylating agents.

  • 101 Want to read
  • 19 Currently reading

Published .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Variation (Biology),
  • Barley.,
  • Chemical mutagenesis.,
  • Mutation breeding.

  • The Physical Object
    Paginationxi, 124 l.
    Number of Pages124
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL16744088M

    (6) The platinum-containing antineoplastic agents [cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin], which are referred to as platinum coordination complexes. These antineoplastic drugs are usually classified as alkylating agents, although they do not alkylate DNA, but cause covalent DNA adducts by a different means. The alkylating drugs work by preventing cancer cells from reproducing. Specifically, they alter the chemical structure of the cells' DNA, which is essential to the reproduction of any cell. This stops the cancer from reproducing or spreading. Pharmacology How the pain reliever Tramadol works. Piperazine Citrate and Diethylcarbamazine -Antihelminthic Drugs. Vinca Alkaloids, Taxanes, Epipodophyllotoxins, Camptothecins, Hormones, Anti-hormones, Asparaginase, Monoclonal Antibodies and Cytokines Alkylating agents are the broad spectrum agennts. Chemistry Different reactive moiety.


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Factors influencing the biological effects of alkylating agents. by Komaratchi Rajagopala Narayanan Download PDF EPUB FB2

Comparative Clinical and Biological Effects of Alkylating Agents Annals of the New York academy of Sciences Vol Art. 3 on *FREE* shipping on qualifying cturer: Academy, In addition, the entry of methylated DNA into subsequent biological processes is dependent on the repair capability of DNA mismatch.

Once both steps are completed, methylated DNA may damage the DNA repair, exerting cytotoxic effect. Thus, an alkylating agent is only effective in some cancer cells with weak or no DNA by: 2.

COVID Resources. Reliable information about the coronavirus (COVID) is available from the World Health Organization (current situation, international travel).Numerous and frequently-updated resource results are available from this ’s WebJunction has pulled together information and resources to assist library staff as they consider how to handle coronavirus.

ChemInform Abstract: Stereoelectronic Factors Influencing the Biological Activity and DNA Interaction of Synthetic Antitumor Agents Modeled on CC ChemInform19 (29) DOI: /chin Jed F. Fisher, Paul A. by: Eric Scholar, in xPharm: The Comprehensive Pharmacology Reference, Adverse Effects.

Most alkylating agents cause gastrointestinal side effects and dose-limiting toxicity to bone marrow. Most of the alkylating agents produce an acute suppression of the bone marrow, with the major effect being a decreased granulocyte count.

Nausea and vomiting are frequent side effects of alkylating agents. Although these side effects are not usually life threatening, they are major discomforts to patients and may result in the delay or discontinuation of : Michael Colvin. There is insufficient information to determine whether any synergistic effects of alkylating agents used in combination will influence the cytotoxic and mutagenic damage equally.

Alkylating agents are strong electrophiles and react with many biological nucleophiles within the tumor cells. Many of these reactions result in inactivation/detoxi fi cation of alkylating age Author: Lakshmaiah Sreerama.

In the early years of scientific medicine, most clinicians and researchers thought only in terms of single causes: specific agents that cause specific disease.

For example, an infection was considered to result only from the proliferation of bacteria, while other kinds of ill health might result from Factors influencing the biological effects of alkylating agents.

book, toxins, accidents, or flaws in a person's genetic makeup. Factors influencing the clinician's choice of antibacterial drug. Antibacterial agents should only be used if a bacterial infection has been diagnosed definitively or is strongly suspected and the natural course is considered likely to be progressive without medical therapy.

ADVERTISEMENTS: The following factors are influencing of cultivation: 1. Light: Light is the only external source of energy for the continuation of life of the plant.

It influences photosynthesis, opening and closing of stomata, plant movements, seed germination, flowering and vegetative growth like tuber formation. Dry sunny weather increases the proportion of glycosides in digitalis [ ].

Behavioral influences include the child’s emotions, beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and cognitive abilities that affect health outcomes. Environmental influences are wide-ranging and include infectious agents, toxins such as lead and air pollution, and social factors such as.

It appeared likely therefore that both the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of the alkylating agents resulted from their action on genetic material, and since DNA has been widely assumed to be of the first importance as a genetic substance it attracted attention as a possible site of alkylation in biological Cited by: Alkylating agents and DNA polymerases has demonstrated great variability of effects on the various cell biological phenomena, and no aspect of chemical structure or biochemical reactivity of.

Different kinds of biological factors are encountered in a wide range of work places. The biological agents may cause a variety of health effects in humans, such as infectious diseases, acute toxic effects, allergies and even cancer.

The increased use of radioisotopes has led to increased concerns over the effects of these materials on biological systems (such as humans). All radioactive nuclides emit high-energy particles or electromagnetic waves.

When this radiation encounters living cells, it can cause heating, break chemical bonds, or ionize molecules.

The most serious Author: OpenStax. The evidence for social and environmental factors that contribute to obesity are often underappreciated.

Obesity prevalence is significantly associated with sex, racial ethnic identity, and socioeconomic status, which creates complex relationships between each of these by: 1.

Alkylating agents are compounds that work by adding an alkyl group to the guanine base of the DNA molecule, preventing the strands of the double helix from linking as they should. This causes breakage of the DNA strands, affecting the ability of the cancer cell to multiply.

Eventually, the cancer cell dies. Alkylating agents were one of the. Therefore, the search for novel nitrogen mustard agents devoid of these side effects continues to be an active area of research in medicinal chemistry and various modifications have been carried out in the last decade (Kapuriya et al.,Leiris et al.,Li et al.,Mourelatos et al.,Scutaru et al., ).

They have been Cited by: 5. Biological factors affecting toxic response Species and strain differences Disposition of the compound Distribution The plasma protein concentration is a species-dependent variable, also types of proteins vary between species. Excretion Rate of urine excretion varies considerably between species (in rat 10 times higher than that of humans).File Size: KB.

Radiation Botany,Vol. 12, pp. to Pergamon Press. Printed in Great Britain. STUDIES ON THE MUTAGENIC EFFECTS OF SOME MONOFUNCTIONAL ALKYLATING AGENTS IN RICE M.M.~ Atomic Energy Centre, Dacca, Bangladesh and j.

SORIANO Botany Department, University of the Philippines (Received 30 September ; revised) RAHMa~ M. and by: 3. Alkylating Agent Chromosome Breakage Nitrogen Mustard Chemical Mutagen Storage Effect These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors.

This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm by: 2. Certain biological factors including genetics, nutrition, and gender can play a particularly important role in the course of early development. These factors influence a child both in positive ways that can enhance their development and in negative ways that can compromise developmental outcomes.

While alkylating agents have been shown to be highly effective in the treatment of ocular inflammation, their use has been limited by the risks of serious side effects including sterility and.

III. Effects on life span, weight, blood picture, and carcinogenesis and the role of the intensity of radiation. Biological effects of external X and gamma radiation, Chap.

Author: L. Lamerton. Factor # 1. Biological Factors: By and large, the influences of biological factors on personality structure are limited and indirect.

The biological factors include genetic, hereditary factors, physical appearance and physique and rate of maturation. Most of these factors have been elaborately discussed in the chapter on development in this book. History. Before their use in chemotherapy, alkylating agents were better known for their use as sulfur mustard, ("mustard gas") and related chemical weapons in World War nitrogen mustards were the first alkylating agents used medically, as well as the first modern cancer chemotherapies.

Goodman, Gilman, and others began studying nitrogen mustards at Yale inand, following the. Factors Affecting Personality. As personality is developed within the social framework, as such, many factors contribute to its development.

For an easy understanding, the factors that effect personality are classified into two groups: (i) Biological Factors (ii) Environmental Factors Biological Factors. The biological factors are of biogenic. Praise for the Second Edition. This book is very well presented.

A particular strength is the use of many examples of major pollution events and case studies, as well as an actual ecological impact assessment study in the appendix. The use of alkylating agents is limited by their deleterious side effects, including hematopoietic suppression.

In order to overcome these important clinical issues, new generations of alkylating agents which are preferentially activated by tumor cells have been developed.

Cells with low O6-MGMT level are more susceptible to cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of alkylating agents. On the other hand, alkylating agents are used in certain chemotherapy regimens. Biological alkylating agents are chemicals that transfer alkyl groups to biologically important macromolecules under physiological conditions.

alkylating agents. II: Chemistry. Molecular analysis of mutants. Influence of cellular processes. (), ‘Factors influencing the effect of β-propiolactone on chromosomes of Vicia faba Cited by: 2.

•Dosing for each alkylating agent is specific for each treatment regimen 13 Alkylating Agents, cont. •Adverse effects: N/V, hemorrhagic cystitis, bone marrow suppression, alopecia, secondary malignancies, and sterility •Major dose-limiting toxicities occur in: Hematopoietic system Urinary systems 14 Alkylating Agents, Size: KB.

Summary. Alkylating agents such as methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) and mitomycin C cause large changes in the nucleoid structure of Escherichia the presence of high concentrations of these compounds, 25 and mM respectively, relaxation of the supercoiled structure takes by: 2.

Alkylating agents are able to draw up covalent bonds with DNA of all cells, normal or cancerous, especially those which reproduce rapidly. Their effect is thus not very specific. Handling antineoplastic agents must obey to strict rules to avoid any contact with. Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another.

The alkyl group may be transferred as an alkyl carbocation, a free radical, a carbanion or a carbene (or their equivalents). An alkyl group is a piece of a molecule with the general formula C n H 2n+1, where n is the integer depicting the number of carbons linked together. For example, a methyl group (n = 1, CH 3) is a.

This may be the main reason that microbial insecticides are being developed as biological control agents during the last three decades. Microorganism e.g., a bacterium, fungus, virus or protozoan as the active ingredient can control many different kinds of pests, although each separate active ingredient is relatively specific for its target by: In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.

As many mutations can cause cancer, mutagens are therefore also likely to be carcinogens, although not always necessarily mutagens have characteristic mutational signatures with some. its unique side effect of Alkylating Agents Acrolein metabolite binds to bladder wall Cystitis with tissue edema, ulceration, local hemorrhage Painful urination, hematuria Prevention: Hydration (3L a day) give medication **Mesna** it Binds to acrolein metabolite to form non-toxic compound.

These effects are typically quite substantial: in one study, SES was found to account for approximately 20% of the variance in childhood IQ (Gottfried, Gottfried, Bathurst, Guerin, and Parramore, Significance of the study Educators have expended remarkable exertions in the studying the personal factors on academic achievement of students.

Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy herapy may be given with a curative intent (which almost always involves combinations of drugs), or it may aim to prolong life or to reduce symptoms (palliative chemotherapy).Other names: [email protected]{osti_, title = {Labelling of living mammalian spermatozoa with the fluorescent thiol alkylating agent, monobromobimane (MB): immobilization upon exposure to ultraviolet light and analysis of acrosomal status}, author = {Cummins, J M and Fleming, A D and Crozet, N and Kuehl, T J and Kosower, N S and Yanagimachi, R}, abstractNote = {Living spermatozoa of seven mammalian species.Alkylating agent, any highly reactive drug that binds to certain chemical groups (phosphate, amino, sulfhydryl, hydroxyl, and imidazole groups) commonly found in nucleic acids and other macromolecules, bringing about changes in the DNA and RNA of ting agents were the first anticancer drugs used, and, despite their hazards, they remain a cornerstone of anticancer therapy.